Mythos 11 – Sumerian Linguistics

The earliest translated cuneiform tablets are from the early Sumerian period, circa 4,900 years ago. The Sumerian period of Mesopotamian history begins on the top of a sterile deposit of soil indicating the Sumerian civilization started in the aftermath of a major flood. Assyriologists are divided on whether the Sumerians were the indigenous people of the Ubaid period, or colonists that arrived from somewhere else. The Sumerians used a similar cuneiform script as the earlier Ubaid civilization, however altered it massively changing the direction of the script to left to right in horizontal rows, in the process rotating the pictographs 90° counter-clockwise, and adding a new wedge-tipped stylus which produced wedge-shaped signs, converting it to true cuneiform from the earlier pictographic proto-cuneiform. Read more →

Mythos 12 – Anunna Amphibians

Regardless of where the Sumerians came from, they had a complex religion, and a more complex mytho-history, reaching back deep into prehistory 454,300 years ago, and recorded the creation of humanity by strange creatures form the sky around 263,500 years ago. Since the discovery of the Sumerian civilization a century ago, there has been an ongoing attempt to reconstruct their history and culture. Their language was relatively easy to reconstruct as we have translations of it from later periods, during the Babylonian, Persian, and Greek rule of Mesopotamia. The gods were also familiar as many of the later Mesopotamian gods were the same Sumerian gods, although generally known later on under their Akkadian names. Reconstructing Sumerian history has proved more interesting, and had resulted in Assyriologists drawing a line through the middle of Sumerian history, between the later stories that can be independently referenced, and the earlier mythical history. Read more →

Mythos 13 – Nungalene Slaves

In the Sumerian mytho-history, the Anunna later called Anunnaki / Anunnaku in Akkadian, came to the Earth before there were humans. They employed another group known as the Nungalene, later called Igigi / Igigu in Akkadian, to work in their garden on Earth. The Nungalene are not described in any detail in the surviving Mesopotamian texts, and like the Anunna, there are no known statues of them or temples dedicated to them. Nungalene translates as approximately “the great sovereigns,” although the oldest known tablets that describe them date to the Old Babylonian Era, by which time they were already known as Igigu in Akkadian. Read more →

Mythos 14 – Children of Tiamat

In the Babylonian era Tiamat was listed as the leader of the Anunna, however she was not described in either surviving Sumerian or Akkadian records. She has been described as being dragon-like in modern literature because some of her children were dragons. Tiamat was listed as the mother of many groups of Anunna, including Bašmu the venomous snakes, Girtablullû the scorpion men, Kulullû the fish men, Kusarikku the bull men, Laḫmu the hairy ones, Mušmaḫḫū the exalted serpents, Mušḫuššu the furious snakes, Ugallu the big weather-beasts, Umū dabrūtu the violent storms, Uridimmu the mad lions, and Ušumgallu the great dragons. Read more →

Mythos 15 – Enki and Enlil

In the Sumerian mythos the forced labor took place in Dilmun, in a region called Edin. Edin translates as plain or steppe, and according to the epics there were several rivers crossing it. If the proposal of Samuel Noah Kramer is correct and Dilmun was the Indus civilization, then the Edin plain would be the Pubjab region in eastern Pakistan and northern India which the Indus River flows through. The name Punjab is based on the Persian words panj meaning ‘five’ and āb meaning ‘waters,’ which is a translation of the older Sanskrit term pancha-nada meaning ‘country of five rivers,’ as it was called the ancient Indian epic Mahābhārata. Read more →

Mythos 16 – Eridug and Bad-tibira

Prior to the flood caused by the Lord of Phantoms, the Sumerians believed the world had been ruled by a series of eight kings, seven of which had been guided by an Abgal, which were described as an amphibious merman sent to live with the early human beings, and teach them the arts of civilization such as writing, law, architecture, construction, and agriculture. The Abgal remained with human beings after teaching them the ways of civilization, and served as advisers to the kings. Read more →

Mythos 17 – Larag and Zimbir

Wherever the Fortress of the Smiths was, it appears to have stood throughout the Wolstonian Glacial period, and the Ipswichian Inter-Glacial period that followed, also called the Riss-Würm, Sangamonian, Eemian, or Valdivia Inter-glacial in various parts of the world. The Fortress of the Smiths eventually fell around 88,700 years ago, however the reason is more likely related to the strange stories related to King Dumuzid being abducted by Gallus, than an environmental issue. In the ancient Sumerian epic Dumuzid and Ĝeštinana, King Dumuzid is betrayed by the Lady of Heaven (Nin-an-ak) Inanna, also known in Akkadian as Ishtar, who allow Gallus to abduct and violate him. Gallus were not described in any surviving Sumerian texts however early seals depict them as non-human. The word Gallu which translated directly as “Powerful” and “Person”, was generally translated as “demon,” in Akkadian, however a Sumerian translation would be “Dangerous-Enemy”. Read more →

Mythos 18 – Seven Abgals

When compared to the geological and genetic records, the Sumerian King List appears to record the major changes that took place on Earth over the past 260,000 years. During this ongoing chain of events the Abgal were recorded to have been guiding humanity, until around 21,000 years ago when they withdrew from the Earth. Seven are recorded as helping the kingdoms prior to the flood caused by the Lord of Phantoms: Uanna, Uannedugga, Enmedugga, Enmegalamma, Enmebulugga, An-Enlilda, and Utuabzu. Their names seem to be mostly descriptions or metaphors, such as Uannedugga ‘who was endowed with comprehensive intelligence,’ Enmedugga ‘who was allotted a good fate,’ Enmegalamma ‘who was born in a house,’ and Enmebulugga ‘who grew up on pasture land.’ A few do seem to be connected to events, such as An-Enlilda ‘the conjurer of the city of Eridu’, Uanna ‘who finished the plans for heaven and earth,’ and Utuabzu ‘who ascended to heaven.’ It appears as if the Abgal decided to leave the Earth after Utuabzu. Some scholars have identified Utuabzu as the legendary Babylonian mythical figure Oannes, while others identify Uanna with Oannes. Read more →

Mythos 19 – Utnapishtim’s Flood

The date of the Anunna creation of homo-sapiens from ‘unskilled labour’ by adding ‘intelligence’ dates back to approximately 263,500 years ago. This date is derived from the Sumerian King List, as calculated using the Sumerian measurements of time, and using the life of Gilgamesh circa 4,600 years ago as a baseline. The creation of humans was done under the direction of the Lord of the Earth Enki, although the Lord of Phantoms Enlil, was unhappy about it and tried repeatedly to eliminate humanity over the next 240,000 years, using drought, famine, and plague, and ultimately flood. At this point the Lord of the Earth advised a man named Atra-Hasis to rebuild his house into a massive boat, and to take into it his family, workers, and baby animals. The flood storm swept across the land, and the Anunna returned to their home in the sky. Read more →

Mythos 20 – Sumerian Legacy

The Sumerians left us a lot more than some odd stories that may or may not have happened a very long time ago. Most of modern mathematics and geometry can be traced to them. When the Macedonians and Greeks conquered Persia, they began studying the so-called Babylonian Mathematics. Many Babylonian mathematical texts still exist. In contrast to the scarcity of sources in Egyptian mathematics, our knowledge of Babylonian mathematics is derived from over 400 clay tablets unearthed since the 1850s. Read more →