Mythos 17 – Larag and Zimbir

 

Wherever the Fortress of the Smiths was, it appears to have stood throughout the Wolstonian Glacial period, and the Ipswichian Inter-Glacial(1)Nicholas J. Shackleton et al. (2002) “Marine Isotope Substage 5e and the Eemian Interglacial” Global and Planetary Change Volume 36 Number 2003 Pages 151–155 period that followed, also called the Riss-Würm, Sangamonian, Eemian, or Valdivia Inter-glacial in various parts of the world. The Fortress of the Smiths eventually fell around 88,700 years ago, however the reason is more likely related to the strange stories related to King Dumuzid being abducted by Gallus,(2)Bendt Alster (1972) Dumuzi’s dream: Aspects of oral poetry in a Sumerian myth than an environmental issue. In the ancient Sumerian epic Dumuzid and Ĝeštinana, King Dumuzid is betrayed by the Lady of Heaven (Nin-an-ak) Inanna, also known in Akkadian as Ishtar, who allow Gallus to abduct and violate him. Gallus were not described in any surviving Sumerian texts however early seals depict them as non-human. The word Gallu which translated directly as “Powerful” and “Person”, was generally translated as “demon”,(3)John Morris (1880) The New Nation, Volume 3, Pages 40 & 311 in Akkadian, however a Sumerian translation would be “Dangerous-Enemy.”(4)I. Tzvi Abusch (1987) Babylonian witchcraft literature

King Dumuzi Being Abducted by Gallas

An Ancient Sumerian Seal Depicting King Dumuzi Being Abducted by Gallas

After Dumuzid’s abduction, another person named Lulal was appointed as the King of Bad-tibira,(5)Piotr Michalowski (1989) The Lamentation over the Destruction of Sumer and Ur Page 86 although his name does not appear in the Sumerian King List, indicating that the lists were likely dynasties, and not individuals that lived for tens of millennia. The fall of the Fortress of the Smiths also happened to fall within the estimated time period of the human genetic bottleneck sometime between 70,000 and 100,000 years ago, when there were perhaps as few as 3,000 to 10,000 humans on the planet.(6)Stanley H. Ambrose (1998) “Late Pleistocene human population bottlenecks, volcanic winter, and differentiation of Modern-Humans” Journal of Human Evolution Volume 34 Issue 6 Pages 623–651 A couple decades ago it was proposed to have been caused by the Toba volcanic event, however this appears to have happened too late, as geneticists have found the bottleneck happened closer to 100,000 years ago,(7)D. M. Behar et al. (2008) “The dawn of human matrilineal diversity” American Journal of Human Genetics, Volume 82, Number 5, Pages 1130–40 much earlier than the Toba event around 70,000. The theory is based on coalescence evidence of some nuclear genes and the relatively low level of genetic variation in humans.(8)Richard Dawkins (2004) “The Grasshopper’s Tale” The Ancestor’s Tale, A Pilgrimage to the Dawn of Life Page 416 As there is no explanation for the sudden drop in the number of humans on the planet, perhaps King Dumuzid wasn’t the only person the Dangerous-Enemy abducted.

The following capital city Larag was built before the onset of the most recent glacial period around 88,700 years ago. The Devensian Glacial(9)Lee Clayton et al. (2006) “Glaciation of Wisconsin” Department of Geology, University of Wisconsin period, also called Würm, Wisconsin, Weichselian, Llanquihue Glacial in different regions of the world, started around 71,000 years ago, and lasted until approximately 12,000 years ago. The Sumerian King List states that Larag fell at approximately 59,900 years ago, and the capital was moved to Zimbir. This is also an odd point in time, as it was recently discovered that the Neanderthal DNA in modern Humanity dates to approximately 60,000 years ago. This information comes from the analysis of a bone found on the banks of a Siberian river, that has yielded the oldest modern human genome yet recovered. The man who lived 45,000 years ago, was definitely related to both humans and Neanderthals.(10)Qiaomei Fu et al. (2014) “Genome sequence of a 45,000-year-old modern human from western Siberia.” Nature, Volume 514, Pages 445–449 His DNA showed that the two human groups first mated around 60,000 years ago. This seems odd, as human remains are found in Africa,(11)Ian McDougall et al. (2005) “Stratigraphic Placement and Age of Modern Humans from Kibish, Ethiopia,” Nature, Volume 433, Number 7027, Pages 733–736 the Middle East,(12)Roger Lewin and Robert A. Foley (2004) Principles of Human Evolution, Page 385 East Asia,(13)Catherine Brahic (08 August 2014) “Human exodus may have reached China 100,000 years ago” New Scientist and Southeast Asia(14)Barney Henderson (August 3, 2010) “Archaeologists unearth 67,000-year-old human bone in Philippines” The Telegraph prior to 60,000 years ago. For some reason, humans and neanderthals appear to have been living separately. Then when Larag fell, humans and neanderthals stated living together, and interbreeding.

Illustration of the Earth's Magnetic Field Protecting the Earth.

Illustration of the Earth’s Magnetic Field Protecting the Earth.

The time of Zimbir was entirely within the last Devensian Glacial period, however the Sumerians recorded that it fell around 38,900 years ago. This is also a strange point in time, as it is at approximately the same time as the Laschamp Event. The Laschamp event was a short reversal of the Earth’s magnetic field. It occurred sometime between 39,400 and 43,400 years ago. It was first recognized in the late 1960s as a geomagnetic reversal recorded in the Laschamp lava flows in the Clermont-Ferrand district of France.(15)N. Bonhommet and J. Zähringer (1969) “Paleomagnetism and potassium argon age determinations of the Laschamp geomagnetic polarity event” Earth and Planetary Science Letters, Volume 6, Pages 43–46 The magnetic excursion has since been demonstrated in geological records from many parts of the world. The period of reversed magnetic field was around 440 years, with the transition from the normal field lasting around 250 years. The reversed field was 75% weaker than the current strength during the transition. This means more radiation reached the surface of the Earth, causing greater production of beryllium 10 and higher levels of carbon 14.(16)N. R. Nowaczyk et al. (2012) “Dynamics of the Laschamp geomagnetic excursion from Black Sea sediments” Earth and Planetary Science Letters, Volume 351-352, Pages 54-69 We have no explanation for the event, but it happened around the same time as the fall of Zimbir. Zimbir’s King was Enmendurana, Emmeduranki in Akkadian, whose name translates as the “Bond of Heaven and Earth.”(17)A. R. George (1992) Babylonian Topographical Texts, Page 261 A myth written in Akkadian tells of Emmeduranki being taken to heaven by the gods and taught the secrets of heaven and of earth.(18)Wilfred G. Lambert (1967) “Enmeduranki and Related Material” Journal of Cuneiform Studies, Volume 21, Pages 126-138

After the Laschamp Event and the fall of Zimbir, the capital was moved to Curuppag, which translates as approximately “The Healing Place”. According to the King List Curuppag would have been the capital from 38,900 to 22,300 years ago. This period correlates with the most intense period of glaciation in the Tibetan Plateau (47,000 to 27,000 years ago),(19)Lewis A. Owen et al. (2002) “A note on the extent of glaciation throughout the Himalaya during the global Last Glacial Maximum” Quaternary Science Reviews, Volume 21, Number 1, Pages 147–157 Taiwan (44,250 to 10,680 years ago),(20)Zhijiu Cui et al. (2002) “The Quaternary glaciation of Shesan Mountain in Taiwan and glacial classification in monsoon areas” Quaternary International, Volume 97-98, Pages 147-153 and Japanese Alps (60,000 to 30,000 years ago).(21)Yugo Ono et al. (2005) “Mountain glaciation in Japan and Taiwan at the global Last Glacial Maximum” Quaternary International, Volume 138–139, Pages 79–92 The destruction of Curuppag approximately 22,300 years ago suggests that Curuppag was built on or near the ocean level of the last Glacial Maximum which was about 120 meters (390 feet) below the current oceanic level.

References   [ + ]

1. Nicholas J. Shackleton et al. (2002) “Marine Isotope Substage 5e and the Eemian Interglacial” Global and Planetary Change Volume 36 Number 2003 Pages 151–155
2. Bendt Alster (1972) Dumuzi’s dream: Aspects of oral poetry in a Sumerian myth
3. John Morris (1880) The New Nation, Volume 3, Pages 40 & 311
4. I. Tzvi Abusch (1987) Babylonian witchcraft literature
5. Piotr Michalowski (1989) The Lamentation over the Destruction of Sumer and Ur Page 86
6. Stanley H. Ambrose (1998) “Late Pleistocene human population bottlenecks, volcanic winter, and differentiation of Modern-Humans” Journal of Human Evolution Volume 34 Issue 6 Pages 623–651
7. D. M. Behar et al. (2008) “The dawn of human matrilineal diversity” American Journal of Human Genetics, Volume 82, Number 5, Pages 1130–40
8. Richard Dawkins (2004) “The Grasshopper’s Tale” The Ancestor’s Tale, A Pilgrimage to the Dawn of Life Page 416
9. Lee Clayton et al. (2006) “Glaciation of Wisconsin” Department of Geology, University of Wisconsin
10. Qiaomei Fu et al. (2014) “Genome sequence of a 45,000-year-old modern human from western Siberia.” Nature, Volume 514, Pages 445–449
11. Ian McDougall et al. (2005) “Stratigraphic Placement and Age of Modern Humans from Kibish, Ethiopia,” Nature, Volume 433, Number 7027, Pages 733–736
12. Roger Lewin and Robert A. Foley (2004) Principles of Human Evolution, Page 385
13. Catherine Brahic (08 August 2014) “Human exodus may have reached China 100,000 years ago” New Scientist
14. Barney Henderson (August 3, 2010) “Archaeologists unearth 67,000-year-old human bone in Philippines” The Telegraph
15. N. Bonhommet and J. Zähringer (1969) “Paleomagnetism and potassium argon age determinations of the Laschamp geomagnetic polarity event” Earth and Planetary Science Letters, Volume 6, Pages 43–46
16. N. R. Nowaczyk et al. (2012) “Dynamics of the Laschamp geomagnetic excursion from Black Sea sediments” Earth and Planetary Science Letters, Volume 351-352, Pages 54-69
17. A. R. George (1992) Babylonian Topographical Texts, Page 261
18. Wilfred G. Lambert (1967) “Enmeduranki and Related Material” Journal of Cuneiform Studies, Volume 21, Pages 126-138
19. Lewis A. Owen et al. (2002) “A note on the extent of glaciation throughout the Himalaya during the global Last Glacial Maximum” Quaternary Science Reviews, Volume 21, Number 1, Pages 147–157
20. Zhijiu Cui et al. (2002) “The Quaternary glaciation of Shesan Mountain in Taiwan and glacial classification in monsoon areas” Quaternary International, Volume 97-98, Pages 147-153
21. Yugo Ono et al. (2005) “Mountain glaciation in Japan and Taiwan at the global Last Glacial Maximum” Quaternary International, Volume 138–139, Pages 79–92