Mythos 19 – Utnapishtim’s Flood

 

The date of the Anunna creation of homo-sapiens from ‘unskilled labour‘ by adding ‘intelligence‘ dates back to approximately 263,500 years ago. This date is derived from the Sumerian King List,(1)Stephen Langdon (1923) Historical inscriptions, containing principally the chronological prism, W-B 444 as calculated using the Sumerian measurements of time,(2)Christine Proust (2009) “Numerical and Metrological Graphemes: From Cuneiform to Transliteration” Cuneiform Digital Library Journal and using the life of Gilgamesh circa 4,600 years ago as a baseline.(3)Andrew George (1999) The epic of Gilgamesh: the Babylonian epic poem and other texts in Akkadian and Sumerian The creation of humans was done under the direction of the Lord of the Earth Enki, although the Lord of Phantoms Enlil, was unhappy about it and tried repeatedly to eliminate humanity over the next 240,000 years, using drought, famine, and plague, and ultimately flood.(4)B. R. Foster (2005) Before the Muses: an Anthology of Akkadian Literature At this point the Lord of the Earth advised a man named Atra-Hasis to rebuild his house into a massive boat, and to take into it his family, workers, and baby animals. The flood storm swept across the land, and the Anunna returned to their home in the sky.

Artist's Impression of Noah's Ark

Artist’s Impression of Noah’s Ark

The house-boat survived this flood, after-which Atra-Hasis and his workers built a ziggurat(5)Simo Parpola et al. (1997) The Standard Babylonian, Epic of Gilgamesh so the Anunna would return to the Earth. The Lord of Phantoms was furious with the Lord of the Earth for saving humanity, however the Anunna sided with the Lord of the Earth. Without the Lord of the Earth’s intervention, they would not have any food coming from the Earth,(6)A. R. Millard, (1966) “New Babylonian ‘Genesis’ Story” The Tyndale Biblical Archaeology Lecture, Volume 18, Pages 3-18 and so the Lord of the Earth and the Lord of Phantoms agree on other means for controlling the human population. Enki, the Lord of the Earth was also associated with the Sumerian constellation Ašiku, which translates as the Field, and is today the Square of Pegasus.(7)J. H. Rogers (1998) “Origins of the ancient constellations: I. The Mesopotamian traditions” Journal of the British Astronomical Association, Volume 108, Number 1, Pages 9-28

The name of the flood survivor changed over time; originally known in Sumerian as Utnapishtim meaning ‘he found life,‘ he was later known in Akkadian as Atra-Hasis, meaning ‘very-wise,‘ and Ziusudra meaning ‘found long life.‘ Eventually the Jews, Christians, and Muslims, all knew him as some variation of Noah meaning ‘Rest.(8)Robert M. Best (1999) Noah’s Ark and the Ziusudra Epic A similar but not directly related story is found in ancient Greece, where the Olympian Zeus, became angry with humanity, and caused a massive flood. The Titan Prometheus who had previously made humanity, warned a human named Deucalion to build a giant chest, in which Deucalion and his wife Pyrrha survived the flood.(9)J. David Pleins (2010) When the great abyss opened : classic and contemporary readings of Noah’s flood, Page 110 Unlike in the Torah and Bible, the Greeks considered the story of Deucalion’s flood to be a local flooding in Greece that had wiped out the Pelasgians; the people that lived in Greece before the Greeks.(10)Apollonios Rhodios and Peter Green (2007) The Argonautika, Page 223 The Sumerians stories also didn’t depict the entire world flooded, just wherever Utnapishtim was living prior to the flood. Unfortunately the later story in the Torah and Bible stated that the entire world was flooded,(11)Bible, Genesis 7:20-21 even above the highest mountains, which has led to the story being dismissed by modern peoples as it is simply impossible. Where did the water go? The Torah and Bible imply it ran off the edge of the flat Earth.(12)Bible, Genesis 8:3 In the Epic of Atra-Hasis the flood is described as beginning in a river

Like dragonflies they [dead bodies] have filled the river. Like a raft they have moved in to the edge [of the boat]. Like a raft they have moved in to the riverbank.- Epic of Gilgamesh (13)Jeffrey H. Tigay (1982) The Evolution of the Gilgamesh Epic. Pages 220, 225
Earth 20,000 Years Ago

Earth 20,000 Years Ago

This part of the story was followed by Atra-Hasis’ house-boat crossing a sea. There is also an odd detail in the story, that Atra-Hasis was vomiting bile during the voyage. This could be a reference to sea-sickness, or to a more serious problem, such as radiation sickness, or a disease. While these stories are odd, it is scientifically documented that there has been considerable flooding of the continental shelf since the glaciers started to melt since the last glacial maximum period between 26,500 to 19,000 years ago.(14)Peter U. Clark et al. (2009) “The Last Glacial Maximum” Science, Volume 325, Number 5941, Pages 710–714 Between 26,500 to 19,000 years ago the ocean levels were fairly stable, when hundreds of thousands of cubic kilometers of ice were stacked up on the continents as glaciers, and ice-pack spanned the Northern Atlantic, leaving the global ocean level around 120 meters (390 feet) lower than today. Since the end of the last glacial maximum the ocean levels have been constantly rising, although they did begin slowing around 6,000 years ago. Locations that today support coral reefs were left high and dry, and coastlines were kilometers farther outward. At that time of very low sea level there was a dry land bridge between Siberia and Alaska over which humans are believed to have migrated to North America. According to the Sumerian King List(15)J. J. Finkelstein (1963) “The Antediluvian Kings: A University of California Tablet” Journal of Cuneiform Studies, Volume 17, Number 2, Page 39 the flood caused by the Lord of Phantoms was 22,300 years ago. This seems like another very odd coincidence coming from the ancient Sumerians. It prompts one to wonder who they were and what they knew.

References   [ + ]

1. Stephen Langdon (1923) Historical inscriptions, containing principally the chronological prism, W-B 444
2. Christine Proust (2009) “Numerical and Metrological Graphemes: From Cuneiform to Transliteration” Cuneiform Digital Library Journal
3. Andrew George (1999) The epic of Gilgamesh: the Babylonian epic poem and other texts in Akkadian and Sumerian
4. B. R. Foster (2005) Before the Muses: an Anthology of Akkadian Literature
5. Simo Parpola et al. (1997) The Standard Babylonian, Epic of Gilgamesh
6. A. R. Millard, (1966) “New Babylonian ‘Genesis’ Story” The Tyndale Biblical Archaeology Lecture, Volume 18, Pages 3-18
7. J. H. Rogers (1998) “Origins of the ancient constellations: I. The Mesopotamian traditions” Journal of the British Astronomical Association, Volume 108, Number 1, Pages 9-28
8. Robert M. Best (1999) Noah’s Ark and the Ziusudra Epic
9. J. David Pleins (2010) When the great abyss opened : classic and contemporary readings of Noah’s flood, Page 110
10. Apollonios Rhodios and Peter Green (2007) The Argonautika, Page 223
11. Bible, Genesis 7:20-21
12. Bible, Genesis 8:3
13. Jeffrey H. Tigay (1982) The Evolution of the Gilgamesh Epic. Pages 220, 225
14. Peter U. Clark et al. (2009) “The Last Glacial Maximum” Science, Volume 325, Number 5941, Pages 710–714
15. J. J. Finkelstein (1963) “The Antediluvian Kings: A University of California Tablet” Journal of Cuneiform Studies, Volume 17, Number 2, Page 39