Mythos 1 – Origins of Civilization

Human civilization is a product of at least 5 million years of Hominid and Human ingenuity. Hominids were using spears since as long ago as 5 million years, and fire at least 1 million years. Modern and Archaic Humans were cooking food at least 250,000 years ago, and have used cosmetics for at least 100,000 years. Our ancestors were building furniture for at least 79,000 years, and making jewelry for at least 75,000 years. We’ve used projectile weapons for at least 64,000 years, been sewing things together for at least 61,000 years, and have been grinding grains for at least 37,000 years. We’ve had domesticated dogs for at least 35,000 years, and domesticated sheep for around 13,000 years. We’ve been making ceramic statues for at least 27,000 years, and pottery for at least 20,000 years. Read more →

Mythos 2 – Pleistocene Epoch

The Pleistocene is the geological epoch which lasted from about 2.6 million to 11,700 years ago, spanning the world’s recent period of repeated glaciations. The end of the Pleistocene corresponds with the end of the last glacial period. It also corresponds with the end of the Paleolithic age used in archaeology. It covers most of the latest period of repeated glaciation, up to and including the Younger Dryas cold spell. The end of the Younger Dryas has been dated to about 9,640 BC (11,750 years ago). Read more →

Mythos 3 – Animals and Tools

Scientific evidence indicates that the modern human form appeared during the Pleistocene. At the beginning of the Pleistocene various archaic-hominins were present, such as Paranthropus boisei and Paranthropus robustus. These archaic-hominins are not believed to be human ancestors, but rather other upright walking apes. There is currently no consensus in the scientific community whether the Paranthropus species should be included within the genus Australopithecus or be a distinct genus. The Paranthropus fossils show a creature very much like an ape, with a skeletal structure similar to a gorilla, but approximately the size of a chimpanzee. The average brain size of P. robustus measured to beween 410 and 530 cubic centimeters, approximately the size of a chimpanzee’s brain. Read more →

Mythos 4 – Homo Erectus

The other modern-hominin at the beginning of the Pleistocene was the Homo ergaster, also called African Homo erectus, that lived in eastern and southern Africa during the early Pleistocene, between 1.8 million and 1.3 million years ago. There is still disagreement on the subject of the classification, ancestry, and descendants of Homo ergaster. The current consensus among palaeo-anthropologists is to consider Homo ergaster to be simply the African variety of Homo erectus. Until the fossil discoveries of the past few decades, Homo erectus were believed to have appeared on the planet early in the Pleistocene, and the have existed until they became extinct around 143,000 years ago. The discoveries in Dmanisi, Georgia, since 1991 AD have made palaeo-anthropologists reconsider previous concepts. The older hypothesis was that Homo erectus migrated from Africa during the Early Pleistocene, and dispersed throughout much of Eurasia. The second hypothesis is that Homo erectus evolved in Eurasia and then migrated to Africa. The species occupied a Caucasus site in Dmanisi (Georgia), from 1.85 million to 1.77 million years ago, slightly before the earliest evidence in Africa. Excavations found 73 stone tools for cutting and chopping and 34 bone fragments from unidentified creatures. Other fossilized remains from 1.8 to 1 million years old have been found in Kenya, Tanzania, Indonesia, Vietnam, China, and India. Read more →

Mythos 5 – Creation v. Evolution

The concept that humans evolved from animals has been around for thousands of years, along with the chief competing theory that humans were creations of gods or other creatures from the sky. Evolution, once called Development, was know in ancient times within the materialism philosophy. Materialism was known in Ancient India from around 2,600 years ago in the works of Ajita Kesakambali, Payasi, Kanada, and the proponents of the Cārvāka school of philosophy. Around 2,300 years ago materialism was known in China in the works of Xunzi a Confucian philosopher. In Greece several early philosophers developed materialist thought including Thales, Anaxagoras, Epicurus, and Democritus since at least 2,500 years ago. Read more →

Mythos 6 – Neanderthals

Homo Heidelbergensis originated between 800,000 and 1,300,000 years ago, and continued until about 200,000 years ago. Scientists do not agree when Neanderthals can first be recognized in the fossil record, with dates ranging between 200,000 and 300,000 years ago. The first Homo Heidelbergensis fossils with proto-Neanderthal traits date to as early as 350,000 to 600,000 years ago with the first “true Neanderthals” appearing between 200,000 and 250,000 years ago. The exact date of their extinction has also been disputed. In August 2014, a team reported on a new analysis of 40 sites in western Europe, concluding that Neanderthals died out about 40,000 years ago. This date, much earlier than previous estimates, was established through improved radio carbon dating methods. Researchers want to expand their survey of sites to Eastern Europe and Siberia, as Neanderthals may have survived longer there. Read more →

Mythos 7 – Denisovans

There have been several instances of archaic human admixture with Modern-Humans through interbreeding of Modern-Humans with Neanderthals, Denisovans, and possibly other archaic humans over the course of human history. Neanderthal-derived DNA accounts for an estimated 1–4% of the Eurasian genome, but it is significantly absent or uncommon in the genome of most Sub-Saharan African people. In the Pacific and Southeast Asian populations, there’s an increase of Denisovan DNA. An estimated 4–6% of the Melanesian genome is derived from Denisovans. Read more →

Mythos 8 – Genetic Adam and Eve

Geneticists have provided some confusing information about humanity in the past couple decades, perhaps none more confusing than the research into mitochondria and Y chromosomes. Without a DNA sample, it is not currently possible to reconstruct the complete genetic makeup of any individual who died very long ago. By analyzing descendants’ DNA however, parts of ancestral genomes are estimated by scientists. Mitochondrial DNA and Y-chromosome DNA are commonly used to trace ancestry in this manner. Mitochondrial DNA is generally passed unmixed from mothers to children of both genders, along the maternal line, or matrilineally. The inherited DNA in the male case is his nuclear Y chromosome rather than the Mitochondrial DNA. Read more →

Mythos 9 – Ubaid Civilization

Given the destruction of almost all ancient libraries our ancestors ever built it is surprising that any ancient records exist. Several collections of stories descend from our ancestors that are set in the Pre-historic era, although even in the early historic era, we aren’t sure what was happening on most of the planet. The surviving records include the stories found in ancient texts such as the Book of Coming Forth by Day, Aegyptiaca, the Epic of Gilgamesh, Dumuzid and Ĝeštinana, Babyloniaca, the Ṛigveda, the Gathas, the Rāmāyaṇa, the Mahābhārata, and the Records of the Grand Historian. Additional records have been found in the reconstructed King Lists of Egypt and Sumer. Most of these stories have been dismissed as myths, however some of them do seem to line up with what scientists have found regarding the planet’s past. Read more →

Mythos 10 – Early Assyriology

Early Mesopotamian archeology is an ongoing field of research, 500 years ago almost nothing was known of Mesopotamia that wasn’t found in classical Jewish or Greek manuscripts. During the crusades around 800 years ago, a rabbi named Benjamin of Tudela from the Spanish kingdom of Navarre had identified the ruins of Nineveh, the Assyrian capital mentioned in the Torah. Benjamin’s diary The Travels of Benjamin was originally written in Hebrew, however after being translated into Latin in the early Renaissance became a major source of information on the geography and ethnology of the Middle East and North Africa. Around 400 years ago Sir Walter Raleigh devoted several pages in his History of the World to reiterating scholarly debates as to who had built the cities of Assyria: the Biblical Nimrod or Historic Ashur. Read more →