If the Volga is the Raŋhā from the Avesta, then it could be the place the Gathas were written, as the land of the Raŋhā was the last land listed in the Vendidad. This would explain why there are no known Avestan texts remaining other than in the Avesta itself, as no known Cimmerian texts remain. The Sakans and other Eastern-Iranians wrote in several scripts throughout history, and if the Avesta is truly as old as many Zend scholars believe, it could have been written in a script used by the Cimmerians which has subsequently been lost. When the Cimmerian civilization fell, many Cimmerians migrated sound into Anatolia, while others likely migrated with the Thracians into the Balkans. There is an additional school of thought that some Cimmerian and Thracian refugees migrated into Germanic and Celtic lands and sparked the European Iron Age.(1)Gwyn Jones (2001) A History of the Vikings
It seems likely that the writers of the Ṛigveda did have contact with the Germanic and Celtic peoples in archaic times, as the Ṛigveda describes conflicts between the Aryans, and a people called the Danavas. The Danavas were described as being the children of the Vedic primordial water Asura Dānu,(2)David Kinsley (1987) Hindu Goddesses: Visions of the Divine Feminine in the Hindu Religious Tradition which was a mythical River called the Dānu. The historical Hinduism expert David Frawley claims that many ancient European peoples, particularly the Celts and Germans, regarded themselves as children of Danu, with Danu meaning the Mother Goddess.(3)David Frawley (1991) Gods, Sages and Kings The ancient Celts called themselves the Tuatha De Danaan meaning ‘Tribe of Danu,'(4)John T. Koch (2006) Celtic Culture: A Historical Encyclopedia, Pages 1693-1694 and one of the names the ancient Greeks called themselves was the Danaan, which is derived from the same root Danu.(5)Gregory Nagy (2014) The Heroic and the Anti-Heroic in Classical Greek Civilization Within the Germanic tribes the Dani people became the ancestors of the Danes.(6)Mierow Jordanes (1908) Getica III, Page 23 All three of these peoples are believed to have lived along the Danube river at an early point in their cultural histories, which is where the common Water/Mother Goddess Danu is believed to have been derived.
This would mean that the ancient Aryans did not consider all Indo-Europeans to be Aryans, and likely fought wars against the ancestors of the Germans, Celts, and Greeks in the early stages of the Ṛigveda. The migration of the Aryans from a central hearth in the Danube can also be seen in the surviving Indo-Iranian names for rivers in the Pontic Steppes were several rivers still carry the root Don in their names. The first the Indo-Iranians seem to have come into contact with was the Dniester of western Ukraine and Moldova; the name Dniester derives from the Indo-Iranian (Sarmatian) Dānu Nazdya meaning ‘the close river.'(7)J. P. Mallory and Victor H. Mair (2000) The Tarim Mummies: Ancient China and the Mystery of the Earliest Peoples from the West, Page 106 The second major river the Aryans would have encountered would have been the Southern Boh River, also called the Southern Bug River. The origin of the name Boh/Bug is unknown, but believed to be derived from an old Slavic word for wealth. The River was used throughout history along with the neighboring Western Bug river that drains to the north, as a trade route connecting the Black Sea and Baltic Sea. These two rivers are also one of the two focal-points of the R1A Halogroup in the human genome, the other being in eastern Iran and Afghanistan. This is generally seen as genetic evidence of Human migration from the Bug Rivers to southern Asia, sometime since the R1A mutaion first appeared in the human genome some around 18,500 years ago.(8)S. Sharma, et al. (2009) “The Indian origin of paternal haplogroup R1a1 substantiates the autochthonous origin of Brahmins and the caste system,” Journal of Human Genetics, Volume 54, Number 1, Pages 47–55
The next major river the Aryans would have encountered would have been the Dnieper in central Ukraine, its name being derived from Indo-Iranian (Sarmatian) Dānu Apara meaning “the river on the far side.”(9)J. P. Mallory and Victor H. Mair (2000) The Tarim Mummies: Ancient China and the Mystery of the Earliest Peoples from the West, Page 106 The following major river encountered would have been the Don river of Southern Russia and the eastern Ukraine; the name Don is derived from the Indo-Iranian (Sarmatian) Dānu meaning “river.” The next major river the Aryans would have encountered as they migrated across the Pontic Steppes would have been the Volga River, which was known as the Rhā river in Sakan, which a growing number of Zend scholars believe to be the Raŋhā from the Avesta, and Rásā from the Ṛigveda.
References [ + ]
|1.||⇑||Gwyn Jones (2001) A History of the Vikings|
|2.||⇑||David Kinsley (1987) Hindu Goddesses: Visions of the Divine Feminine in the Hindu Religious Tradition|
|3.||⇑||David Frawley (1991) Gods, Sages and Kings|
|4.||⇑||John T. Koch (2006) Celtic Culture: A Historical Encyclopedia, Pages 1693-1694|
|5.||⇑||Gregory Nagy (2014) The Heroic and the Anti-Heroic in Classical Greek Civilization|
|6.||⇑||Mierow Jordanes (1908) Getica III, Page 23|
|7, 9.||⇑||J. P. Mallory and Victor H. Mair (2000) The Tarim Mummies: Ancient China and the Mystery of the Earliest Peoples from the West, Page 106|
|8.||⇑||S. Sharma, et al. (2009) “The Indian origin of paternal haplogroup R1a1 substantiates the autochthonous origin of Brahmins and the caste system,” Journal of Human Genetics, Volume 54, Number 1, Pages 47–55|