While the Vinča symbols remain undeciphered it is not provable that the ancient Danubian culture had anything to do with the ancient Aryans, however the description of the Danube River region does seem to correspond with the land of the Dānu Asura. The land of the Dānu Asura was not the homeland of the Aryans in the Ṛigveda, but rather the place where they found and subdued the Danavas, the children of the Dānu River. As multiple cultures in Europe claim to be descended from a goddess called Danu, it seems improbable that the stories of the River goddesses named Danu are unrelated. Many ancient European gods and Vedic Asura are clearly related. The Germanic gods were called the Æsir, which is phonetically related to the Vedic Asura and Avestan Ahura. In the Germanic mythos the Æsir fought a war against another group called the Vanir, which is phonetically similar to Vanara from the Indus Epics. The origin of the word Vanara is unknown, and could have been carried into the Indus by the migrating Aryans, who used their own terminology when translating the epics into Sanskrit. The Ṛigveda did not have Vanara in it, however did have a version of Hanumān in it called Vṛṣākapi.(1)Camille Bulcke and Dineśvara Prasāda (2010) Rāmakathā and Other Essays, Pages 117–126 Like Hanumān and the Egyptian Babi, Vṛṣākapi’s name literally translates as Male-Monkey (vṛṣā kapi).(2)Sukumari Bhattacharji (2007) The Indian Theogony, Pages 277 Vṛṣākapi is not just a male monkey, but a god-like monkey-man, who at one point was represented as being as powerful as Indra, the leader of the Celestials.
As with several other ancient religions, the gods and other powerful beings of the Ṛigveda were often described as creatures from outer space. The Vedic term was Ādityas (आदित्य) which meant offspring of Aditi (अदिति),(3)Karel Werner (2005) A Popular Dictionary of Hinduism, Page 17 the limitless sky. In the Ṛigveda there were eight Ādityas: Varuna, Mitra, Aryaman, Bhaga, Anśa, Dhatri, and Indra, along with the outcast Āditya Vayu, and in later ancient Hindu texts the list sometimes included the Earth’s Sun, Surya. Varuna was the Āditya of a Celestial Ocean, which while seemingly self-contradicting, matches the description of Enki’s home in Sumerian mythology, the celestial ocean Nammu.(4)Gwendolyn Leick (1991) A dictionary of ancient Near Eastern mythology, Page 124
Most of the other Ādityas were generally not described in detail in the Ṛigveda, which was mainly focused on Indra, the leader of the Ādityas, and the ruler of Svarga. Varuna and Indra’s allies were the other Ādityas Mitra, Aryaman, Bhaga, Anśa, and Dhatri. Several of the Ādityas were associated with aspects of civilization, including Mitra who taught humanity legal systems, Bhaga who taught commerce, and Dhatri taught medicine. Aryaman was a protector who was said to travel through the Milky-Way Galaxy (aryamṇáḥ pánthāḥ). The outcast Āditya Vayu bears a remarkable resemblance to another Sumerian deity, Enlil, the Lord of Wind. Vayu was also called the Lord of Wind, or Pavana (पवन) meaning “the Purifier”.(5)Eva Rudy Jansen and Tony Langham (1993) The book of Hindu imagery: The Gods and their Symbols
The Ādityas of the Ṛigveda came from Svarga, which was described as a set of worlds far from the Earth.(6)B. K. Chaturvedi (2004) Shiv Purana, Page 124 These worlds were not in the Solar System, which was described in Vedic astrology as the Navagraha, being composed of the nine grahas or holdings. These grahas include the Sun (Surya), Moon (Chandra), the five visible planets Mars (Mangala), Mercury (Budha), Jupiter (Guru), Venus (Shukra), and Saturn (Shani), along with the two invisible planets Uranus and Neptune (Rahu and Ketu). Conversely, Svarga was far from the Earth, half way to Vaikuntha, the home of the Supreme Lord Vishnu.(7)Rigveda 1.22.20 Vaikuntha was a group of planets located in the Capricorn constellation (Makara Rashi), that was described as too far away to be seen from Earth. In the much later Bhagavata Purana which is believed to date to around 2,500 years ago, the Vaikuntha planets were described as surrounded by various aeroplanes, all glowing and brilliantly situated. These aeroplanes belong to the great devotees of Lord Vishnu. The inhabitants of the Vaikuntha planets are described as having a glowing sky-bluish complexion. The ladies are as beautiful as lightning because of their celestial complexions, and all these combined together appear just like the sky decorated with both clouds and lightning.(8)Bhagavata Purana 2.9.13
While the description of Vaikuntha from the Bhagavata Purana is much younger than the Ṛigveda, and therefore may not be what the writers of the Ṛigveda had in mind when they wrote the Ṛigveda, Svarga appears to be a similar collection of worlds in the Ṛigveda. In the Ṛigveda, the capital of Svarga was the Amaravati, a strangely described city; a wheel eight hundred miles in circumference and forty miles in height. This wheel shaped city floating between the planets of Svarga appears to be the description of a space station.(9)K. S. Gautam, editor (1990) India through the ages, Page 66 This description of civilizations composed of clusters of planets in close proximity is consistent with current theories of long term interstellar civilization, wherein long term colonization of planets in different stellar groups is unlikely to lead to long term cohesive civilizations due to stellar drift.
References [ + ]
|1.||⇑||Camille Bulcke and Dineśvara Prasāda (2010) Rāmakathā and Other Essays, Pages 117–126|
|2.||⇑||Sukumari Bhattacharji (2007) The Indian Theogony, Pages 277|
|3.||⇑||Karel Werner (2005) A Popular Dictionary of Hinduism, Page 17|
|4.||⇑||Gwendolyn Leick (1991) A dictionary of ancient Near Eastern mythology, Page 124|
|5.||⇑||Eva Rudy Jansen and Tony Langham (1993) The book of Hindu imagery: The Gods and their Symbols|
|6.||⇑||B. K. Chaturvedi (2004) Shiv Purana, Page 124|
|8.||⇑||Bhagavata Purana 2.9.13|
|9.||⇑||K. S. Gautam, editor (1990) India through the ages, Page 66|